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Ilungu states of World Trade Umbutho - Russian abaqondisi-mthetho-Intanethi


[] Njengoko ka, WTO ilungu states represented

Yoqobo ilungu states of World Trade Umbutho kukho amaqela ukuba GATT emva ratifying i-Uruguay Umjikelo Izivumelwano, [] European UluntuBaye bazuza oku isimo ngomhla ngokungena umkhosi ngomhla woku- kujanuwari okanye phezu zabo umhla ukwamkelwa. Onke amanye amalungu kuba bazimanya umbutho njengoko ngenxa negotiation, ubulungu iqulathe ukulingana amalungelo nezibophelelo zethu. [] inkqubo ngokuba i-World Trade Umbutho (WTO) ilungu zizodwa ngamnye-sicelo lizwe, kwaye ngokwemimiselo accession ingaba dependent phezu kweli lizwe ke iqonga lophuhliso loqoqosho yangoku urhwebo regime. [] I-kunikela ka-accession enikwe kanye consensus ngu ufikelele phakathi kwamalungu. [] inkqubo kuthatha malunga emihlanu, ngokwe-avareji kodwa ke unako athabathe amanye amazwe phantse i-decade ukuba eli lizwe incinane kune uzinikele ngokupheleleyo kwi-nkqubo, okanye ukuba ezopolitiko imiba interfere. I-shortest accession negotiation waba elo Kyrgyzstan, lasting iminyaka kwaye zidlulileyo. I-sebenza ngokujikeleza baba elo-Russia, lasting ubudala waza zidlulileyo, [] Vanuatu, lasting ubudala kwaye ngenyanga, [] ne-China, lasting kweminyaka eli- kunye zidlulileyo. yehlabathi urhwebo kunye. [] Georgia, yalandelwa e-algeria, kukho olungenangxaki kunye nani likhulu GDP norhwebo ngaphandle i-WTO, usebenzisa i-data. [][] lizwe lethu wishing uvume ukuba yinxalenye yengqungquthela WTO efake isicelo Jikelele Lababingeleli. Urhulumente nokufaka ubulungu sele zichaza ukuba yonke imiba yayo urhwebo kunye imigaqo-nkqubo yezoqoqosho ukuba kuba neziphumo kwi-WTO izivumelwano.

[] isicelo ngu zingeniswe kwi-WTO kwi memocomment nto examined yi-a ukusebenza iqela vula bonke anomdla WTO Amalungu, kwaye nomngeni kunye kweli lizwe ke isicelo.

Kuba amakhulu amazwe ezifana Russia, numerous amazwe inxaxheba kule nkqubo. Kuba encinane amazwe, Quadrilateral iqela amazwe - iqulethe i-EU, i-United States, Ekhanada kwaye Japan - kwaye i-sicelo ke wayalela amazwe ingaba ngokuqhelekileyo kakhulu obandakanyekayo. [] - sicelo ke lunika a oluneenkcukacha memocomment ukuba Isebenza Iqela kwi yayo langaphandle urhwebo regime, echaza, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ayo kuqoqosho, imigaqo-nkqubo yezoqoqosho, domestic ngamazwe urhwebo imigaqo, kwaye intellectual property-nkqubo.

I-Isebenza Iqela Amalungu ufake ukubhalwa imibuzo-sicelo ukucacisa imiba yayo langaphandle urhwebo regime kunye ezithile ingqalelo yokuba imali iqondo privatization kwi-uqoqosho kangakanani apho urhulumente umqathango wama-ngu ngaphaya.

[] Emva zonke kuyimfuneko isiqalo ulwazi wenziwe acquired, Isebenza Umntu uza begin intlanganiso ukuze kugxila ngemiba discrepancy phakathi WTO imithetho-Sicelo ke ngamazwe kunye nelindle urhwebo imigaqo-nkqubo nemithetho. I-WP limisela imimiselo nemiqathango ngokungena WTO kuba sicelo isizwe, kwaye kucinga amalungiselelo exesha amathuba ukuvumela amazwe abanye leeway kwi ukuthobela i-WTO imithetho. [] yokugqibela isigaba ka-accession ibandakanya phakathi kwala mazwe mabini uthetha-thethwano phakathi kwe-sicelo isizwe kunye nezinye Isebenza Iqela amalungu malunga concessions kwaye ukuzinikela kwi werhafu amanqanaba ukufikelela kwimakethi yempahla neenkonzo. Ezi ithetha ichaphazela werhafu amazinga kwaye ethile, ukufikelela kwimakethi ukuzinikela, kunye neminye imigaqo-nkqubo kwi-kwempahla neenkonzo.

[] ngathi kweyomnga ngowama, i-WTO sele amalungu

Omtsha lwelungu ukuzinikela ingaba isicelo ngokulinganayo bonke WTO amalungu phantsi eqhelekileyo non-calulo imigaqo, nkqu nokuba ngabo negotiated bilaterally.

Ngamanye amazwi, ithetha ufumanise izibonelelo (ukwimo kumazwe angaphandle amathuba kwaye iziqinisekiso) ezinye WTO amalungu unako silindele xa omtsha ilungu izimanya nabemi.

I-ithetha kusenokuba highly enobunzima kokuba wenziwe wathi ukuba kwezinye iimeko, uthetha-thethwano ingaba phantse njengoko inkulu njengoko i-lonke umjikelo ka-multilateral urhwebo uthetha-thethwano. [] Xa phakathi kwala mazwe mabini ithetha conclude, isebenza iqela finalizes i-ngokwemiqathango yecandelo accession, uthumela accession impahla, nto leyo ibandakanya kwesishwankathelo bonke WP iintlanganiso, Umthetho ka-Accession (a idrafti ubulungu treaty), kwaye lidwelisa ('schedules') ilungu kuba ke ukuzinikela Jikelele Ibhunga okanye Inkomfa Yabaphathiswa. Xa Jikelele Lababingeleli okanye Inkomfa Yabaphathiswa lilo eliya kuphumeza imiqathango yomthetho accession, umfaki-sicelo ke ipalamente kufuneka ratify Umthetho ka-Accession phambi kokuba unako lilungu. [] amaxwebhu asetyenziswa accession inkqubo eziya embargoed ngexesha accession inkqubo ingaba bakhululwe xa isizwe uba lilungu. [] Ye i- states iqela le GATT ekupheleni kowe, zonke kuba ukususela kuba WTO amalungu ngaphandle kuba Socialist Federal Republic of Eyugoslavia, apho waba iintsinjana ngo- kwaye waba ugxothiwe ukusuka athabatha inxaxheba GATT ngexesha.

[][] Ezine ezinye states, China, Lebanon, Eliberia, Aram, ukuba amaqela ukuba GATT kodwa kamva barhoxa bemka i-treaty phambi ukusekwa kwe-WTO.

[][] - China kwaye Israel kuba ukususela acceded kwi-WTO. Eziseleyo WTO amalungu acceded emva wokuqala wokuba WTO observers kwaye negotiating ubulungu. states of European Union ingaba dually represented, njengoko EU ngu epheleleyo lilungu lombutho. Non-sovereign autonomous amaqumrhu lelungu states afanelekile ukuba kuba ngamalungu ngokupheleleyo kwi-WTO ngaphandle kokuba baya kuba eyahlukileyo masiko territory ingxelo epheleleyo autonomy kwi-ukuziphatha zabo wangaphandle abarhwebayo ubudlelwane phakathi. Ngoko ke, Hong Kong waba GATT ukukhupha iqela, yi-ngoku kugqityiwe 'imali' umgaqo-nkqubo we-United kingdom (Sasehong Kong isebenzisa igama 'Hong Kong, China' ukusukela ngo-), njengoko benza Jordan. Omtsha ilungu le uhlobo ngu-Republic of China (Sasetaiwan), apho acceded kwi-WTO kwi, kwaye ngenyameko crafted yayo isicelo nge-ukungenela phantsi igama 'Ezahlukeneyo Masiko Territory Yasetaiwan, Penghu, Kinmen kwaye Matsu (Isitshayina i-taipei)'[][] ngoko ke abazange asivunywanga kangangokuba Abantu ke Republic of China Omnye-China-nkqubo. I-WTO kanjalo sele nakanye states, [] ukuba ngaphandle Oyingcwele Khangela kufuneka qala zabo accession uthetha-thethwano kwisithuba seminyaka emihlanu ngokuba observers. Yokugqibela lizwe ungeniswe njengoko nakanye-kuphela phambi kokuba ufake isicelo kuba epheleleyo ubulungu waba equitorial guinea kwi, kodwa ukususela ngowama- nayo kwi-epheleleyo ubulungu uthetha-thethwano. Kwi- Israel kwaye Imibalaname isetyenziswe ngqo kuba ngamalungu ngokupheleleyo.

Abanye ngamazwe phakathi koorhulumente organizations bamele kanjalo wanika nakanye isimo ukuya WTO imizimba.

[] Nauru Igunya zingeniswe isicelo sephepha-WTO nakanye isimo ngo-oktobha ngo-[] kwaye kwakhona kwi-epreli. [] Russia kwakukho enye kuphela isibini enkulu olungenangxaki ngaphandle i-WTO emva panama abaziwayo kwi. [][] waba iqalile negotiating ukungena WTO ke predecessor ngowe. Yokugqibela enkulu incopho wembambano - enxulumene Russo-isigeorgia Imfazwe - waba isonjululwe ngokusebenzisa mediation yi-Senegal, [] ezikhokelela Russian ubulungu ngo. Enye ufumana Georgia, ebizwa i-nakanye urhulumente kwaye iqalile uthetha-thethwano ngo. Le thebhule ilandelayo uluhlu zonke ngoku amalungu, babo accession umhla ongaphambili GATT ubulungu. [][] zilandelayo itafile uluhlu zonke WTO observers. [][] Kwisithuba seminyaka emihlanu yokuba wanika nakanye isimo yi-WTO, states ezifunekayo ukuze begin negotiating zabo accession ukuba umbutho. [] zilandelayo itafile uluhlu bonke UN ilungu states kwaye UN nakanye states eziya ndivuma amalungu okanye observers ye-WTO.